Iker Ros, Igor Camino Ortiz de Barrón, Edu Zelaieta Anta


En este artículo se pretende abordar la relación de la implicación o compromiso de los estudiantes con el pensamiento crítico y el pensamiento creativo. El compromiso (engagement) está compuesto por tres dimensiones: cognitiva (inversión en la tarea), emocional (identificación) y conductual (participación). Se entiende el pensamiento crítico como un proceso que ayuda a organizar u ordenar conceptos, ideas y conocimientos y el pensamiento creativo como la capacidad de producir ideas o respuestas originales. Ambos tipos de pensamiento buscan la forma más apropiada de resolver un problema. El objetivo del trabajo es ofrecer una perspectiva general de los estilos de enseñanza-aprendizaje y las metodologías que inciden específicamente en un mayor compromiso y fomentan el pensamiento crítico y creativo. Entre estas metodologías destaca el aprendizaje basado en problemas (ABP). Esto puede permitir, futuras tomas de decisiones, y analizar y clasificar los futuros programas formativos en función de los diferentes parámetros y dimensiones contempladas en el estudio.

Palabras Clave:

implicación estudiante
pensamiento crítico
pensamiento creativo
estilos de enseñanza-aprendizaje
metodologías activas



Abstract: This article aims to address the relationship of the engagement of students with critical thinking and creative thinking. The engagement is composed of three dimensions: cognitive (investment in the task), emotional (identification) and behavioural (participation). Critical thinking is understood as a process that helps to organize or order concepts, ideas and knowledge, and creative thinking as the ability to produce original ideas or answers. Both types of thinking seek the most appropriate way to solve a problem. The objective of the work is to offer a general perspective of teaching-learning styles and methodologies that specifically encourage greater engagement and develop critical and creative thinking. Among these methodologies highlights problem-based learning (PBL). This can allow future decision-making, and analyse and classify future training programs according to the different parameters and dimensions contemplated in the study.


student engagement
critical thinking
creative thinking
teaching-learning styles
active methodologies

Texto completo:



Adams, N. (2015). Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 103(3), 152–153.

Adler, M. (2000). How to think about the great ideas: From the great books of Western civilization. New York, NY: Open Court.

Agustini, R. y Suyatna, A. (2018). Developing inquiry-based practice equipment of heat conductivity to foster the students’ critical thinking ability. Journal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika Al-BiRuNi, 7(1), 49-57.

Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California Management Review, 40(1), 39-58.

Anderson, L. y Krathwohl, D. (2001). A taxonomy for Learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Ayçiçek, B. y Yanpar, T. (2018). The Effect of Flipped Classroom Model on Students’ Classroom Engagement in Teaching English. International Journal of Instruction, 11(2), 385-398.

Baker, M., Rud, R. y Pomeroy, C. (2001). Relationships between Critical and Creative Thinking. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research, 51, 173–188.

Bakker, A. y Xanthopoulou, D. (2013). Creativity and charisma among female leaders: The role of resources and work engagement. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2760-2779.

Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, Vol.1: The cognitive domain. New York: McKay.

Bortone, J. (2007). Critical thinking and evidence-based practice in problem based tutorial groups: a critical case study. Disertación doctoral, Fordham University, Nueva York, Proquest Dissertations and Theses núm. 3258027.

Brookfield, S. (1987). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Bruine, B., Fischhoff, B., y Parker, A. (2007). Individual differences in adult decision-making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 938–956.

Burgess, M. (2009). Using WebCT as a Supplemental Tool to Enhance Critical Thinking and Engagement Among Developmental Reading Students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 39(2), 9–33.

Butcher, K., Runburg, M., y Hudson, M. (2017). Using digitized objects to promote critical thinking and engagement in classrooms. Library Hi Tech News, 34(7), 12-15

Cavus, N., y Uzunboylu, H. (2009). Improving critical thinking skills in mobile learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 434–438.

Chang, Y., Li, B., Chen, H. y Chiu, F. (2014). Investigating the synergy of critical thinking and creative thinking in the course of integrated activity in Taiwan. Educational Psychology, 35(3), 341-360.

Chapman, B. S. (2001). Emphasizing concepts and reasoning skills in introductory college molecular cell biology. International Journal of Science Education, 23(11), 1157-1176.

Choi, H. (2004). The effect of PBL on the meta-cognition, critical thinking, and problem solving process of nursing students. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, 712-721.

Chrysti, K., Sajidan, S., Budi, S., y Kun, Z. (2017). Effectiveness of Project Based Learning on Empowerment Critical Thinking Skill toward Pre-service Teacher on Primary Teacher Education Program. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), 158, 399-407.

Craft, A. (2017). A Study of How Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Project-Based Learning (PBL) Can Improve Student Engagement. Master’s thesis, Texas A & M University.

Dehkordi, A. y Hedarnejard, M. (2008). The effects of problem based learning on the development of iranian nursing students’ critical thinking. Pak J Med Sci, 24(5), 740-743.

Derry, S., Levin, J., Osana, H., Jones, M. y Peterson, M. (2000). Fostering students’ statistical and scientific thinking: lessons learned from an innovative college course. American Edu. Res. Journal, 37(3), 747-773.

Donohue, P., Gray, T. y Lamboy, D. (2013). Measuring Engagement to Stimulate Critical Thinking. En Foundations of Augmented Cognition: 5th International Conference, AC 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Julio 21-26, 2013, Proceedings (Vol. 8027, p. 410–417). Springer.

Duff, M., Kurczek, J., Rubin, R., Cohen, N., y Tranel, D. (2013). Hippocampal Amnesia Disrupts Creative Thinking. Hippocampus, 23(12), 1143-1149.

Eldor, L. y Harpaz, I. (2016). A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its relationship with extra‐role performance behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(2), 213-235.

Fisher, A. (2011). Critical thinking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Fredicks, J., Blumenfeld, P., y Paris, A. (2004). School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109.

Fredricks, J., y McColskey, W. (2012). The measurement of student engagement: A comparative analysis of various methods and student self-report instruments. En S. Christenson, A. Reschly, C. Wylie, S. Christenson, A. Reschly, y C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 763-782). New York, NY, US: Springer Science.

Fullan, M., y Langworthy, M. (2014). A rich seam: How new pedagogies find deep learning. London: Pearson.

Gadzella, B., y Masten, W. (1998). Critical thinking and learning processes for students in two major fields. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 25(4), 256-261.

Gilboy, M., Heinerichs, S., y Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing Student Engagement Using the Flipped Classroom. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(1), 109-114.

Glassner, A., y Schwartz, B. (2007). What stands and develops between creative and criatical thinking? Argumentation. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2(1), 10–18.

Greenlaw, S., y DeLoach, S. (2003). Teaching Critical Thinking with Electronic Discussion. The Journal of Economic Education, 34(1), 36–52.

Grohman, M., Wodniecka, Z., y Klusak, M. (2006). Divergent thinking and evaluation skills: Do they always go together? Journal of Creative Behavior, 40(2), 125–145.

Halpern, D. (1993). Assessing the effectiveness of critical thinking instruction. The Journal of General Education, 42(4), 239-254.

Halpern, D. (2013). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Nueva York: Psychology Press.

Hesterberg, L. (2005). Evaluation of a problem-based learning practice course: Do self-efficacy, critical thinking, and assessment skills improve? Disertación doctoral, University of Kentucky, Proquest Dissertations and Theses núm. 3162941.

Hong, Y., y Choi, I. (2015). Assessing reflective thinking in solving design problems: The development of a questionnaire. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 848–863.

Iwaoka, W., Li, Y., y and Rhee, W. (2010). Measuring gains in critical thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition course: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, problem based learning activities, and student journal entries. J. of Food Sci. Edu., 9, 68-75.

Kaufman, S., Quilty, L., Grazioplene, R., Hirsh, J., Peterson, J., y DeYoung, C. (2016). Openness to experience and intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84(2), 248–258.

Ladouceur, M., Rideout, E., Black, M., Crooks, D., O’Mara, L., y Schmuck, M. (2004). Development of an instrument to assess individual student performance in small group tutorials. Journal of nursing education, 43(10), 447-455.

Lemon, G (2011). Diverse perspectives of creativity testing: Controversial issues when used for inclusion into gifted programs. Journal for the Education of the Gifted. 34(5), 742-772.

Lesperance, M. (2008). The effect of problem based learning on students’s critical thinking skills. Disertación doctoral, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Proquest Dissertations and Theses núm. 3337475.

Linn, M. (2000). Designing the knowledge integration environment. International Journal of Science Education, 22(8), 781–796.

Lopez Aymes, G. (2012). Pensamiento crítico en el aula. Docencia e Investigación, 22, 41-60.

Lyons, E. (2001). Examining the effects of problem-based learning on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students in a Southeastern community college. Disertación doctoral, Mississippi State University, Mississipi, Proquest Dissertations and Theses núm. 3227670.

Johnson, C. y Delawsky, S. (2013). Project Based Learning and Student Engagement. Academic Research International, 4(4), 560-570.

Magnussen, L., Ishida, D., e Itano, J. (2000). The impact of the use of inquiry based learning as a teaching methodology on the development of critical thinking”, Journal of Nursing Education, 39(8), 360-364.

Martin, A., y Liem, G. (2010). Academic personal bests (PBs), engagement, and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 265–270.

Martín D., y Tourón, J. (2017). El enfoque flipped learning en estudios de magisterio: percepción de los alumnos. RIED. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia, 20(2), 187-211.

Masek, A., y Yamin, S. (2011). The Effect of Problem Based Learning on Critical Thinking Ability: A Theoretical and Empirical Review. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(1), 215-221.

Maurino, P. (2007). Looking for critical thinking in online threaded discussions. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35(3), 241–260.

McCarthy, J., y Anderson, L. (2000). Active learning techniques versus traditional teaching styles: two experiments from history and political science. Innovative Higher Education 24, 279–294.

McLaughlin, J., Roth, M., Glatt, D.; Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C., Griffin, L., Esserman, D., y Mumper, R. (2014). The Flipped Classroom: A Course Redesign to Foster Learning and Engagement in a Health Professions School. Academic Medicine, 89(2), 236–243.

McMillan, J. (1987). Enhancing college student’s critical thinking: A review of studies. Research in Higher Education, 26(1), 3-29.

Miele, D., y Wigfield, A. (2014). Quantitative and qualitative relations between motivation and critical analytic thinking. Educational Psychology Review, 26(4), 519–541.

Muglia, S., Saiz, C., Rivas, S., Medeiros, C., Almeida, L., Mundim, M., y Franco, A. (2018). Creative and critical thinking: Independent or overlapping components? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27, 114–122.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development -OECD (2009). Education at a glance: 2009 indicators. Washington, DC: OECD.

Ozturk, C., Muslu, G. y Dicle, A. (2008). A comparison of problem-based and traditional education on nursing students’ critical thinking dispositions. Nurse Education Today, 28(5), 627-632.

Padget, S. (2013). Creativity and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.

Papanastasiou, G. y Drigas, A. (2017). Serious Games in Preschool and Primary Education: Benefits and Impacts on Curriculum Course Syllabus. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 44-56.

Philley, J. (2005). Critical thinking concepts. Professional Safety, 50, 26–32.

Piawa, C. (2010) Building a test to assess creative and critical thinking simultaneously. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2(2), 551-559.

Polanco, R., Calderon, P., y Delgado, F. (2004). Effect of Problem Based Learning program on engineering student’s academic achievements, skills development and attitudes in a Mexican University. Inno. in Edu. and Teach. International, 41(2), 145-155.

Qing, Z., Nia, S., y Honga, T. (2010). Developing critical thinking disposition by task-based learning in chemistry experiment teaching. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4561–4570.

Radulovic y Stancic (2017). What is Needed to Develop Critical Thinking in Schools? CEPS Journal, 7(3), 9-25.

Ravitz, J. (2010). Beyond changing culture in small high schools: Reform models and changing instruction with project-based learning. Peabody Journal of Education, 85(3), 290-312.

Rich, B., Lepine, J., y Crawford, E. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617-635.

Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Droguett, L., y Revuelta, L. (2012). School and personal adjustment in adolescence: The role of academic self-concept and perceived social support. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17(2), 397-414.

Roehl, A., Reddy, S., y Shannon, G. (2013). The flipped classroom: an opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105, 44–49.

Ros, I. (2009). La implicación del estudiante con la escuela. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 14(1), 79-92.

Ros, I., Goikoetxea, J., Gairín, J., Lekue, P. (2012). Student engagement in the school: interpersonal and inter-Center Differences. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17(2), 291-308.

Ros, I. (2014a). La cooperativa de trabajo asociado de trabajadores y el sentimiento de pertenencia de su profesorado. Revista Qurriculum, 27, 85-104.

Ros, I. (2014b). El sentimiento de pertenencia de los estudiantes por curso y género en una cooperativa escolar de trabajo asociado. Revista de Psicología y Educación, 9(1), 201-218.

Rotgans, J. y Schmidt, H. (2011). Cognitive engagement in the problem-based learning classroom. Adv in Health Sci Educ, 16, 465-479.

Runco, M. (2003) Education for Creative Potential, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3), 317-324.

Runco, M., Millar, G., Acar, S., y Cramond, B. (2010). Torrance tests of creative thinkingas predictors of personal and public achievement: A fifty-year follow-up. Creativity Research Journal, 22(4), 361–366.

Saadé, R., Morin, D., y Thomas, J. (2012). Critical thinking in E-learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1608–1617.

Sanderson, H. (2008). Comparison of problem based learning and traditional lecture instruction on critical thinking, knowledge, and application of strength and conditioning. Disertación doctoral, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina. Proquest Dissertations and Abstracts núm. 3337476.

Seferoğlu, S., y Akbıyık, C. (2006). Eleştirel düşünme ve öğretimi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 30, 193-200.

Seligman, M., y Csikszentmihalyi M. (2014). Positive Psychology: An Introduction. En: Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology. Springer, Dordrecht.

Sendaq, S. y Odabas, H. (2009). Effect of problem based learning course on content knowledge acquisition and critical thinking skills. Comp. and Edu., 53 (1), 132-141.

Stupinsky, R., Renaud, R., Daniels, L., Haynes, T., y Perry, R. (2008). The international of first year college students’ critical thinking disposition, perceived academic control, and academic achievement. Research in Higher Education, 49(6), 513-530.

Sulaiman, F. (2011). The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning Online on Students’ Creative and Critical Thinking in Physics at Tertiary Level in Malaysia. University of Waikato: Ph.D. Thesis.

Tan, O., Teo, C., y Chye, S. (2009). Problems and Creativity. En Tan, O. S. (ED.), Problem-based learning and creativity (pp. 1-14). Singapur: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.

Tiwari, A., Lai, P., So, M. y Yuen, K. (2006). A comparison of the effect of Problem Based Learning and lecturing on the development of students’ critical thinking. Med. Edu., 40, 547-554.

Tristán, A., y Mendoza, L. (2016). Taxonomías sobre creatividad. Revista de Psicología, 34(1), 147-183.

Ülger, K. (2016). The relationship between creative thinking and critical thinking skills of students. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 31(4), 695–710

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-UNESCO (2016). Assessment of Transversal competencies in education: Policy and practice in the Asian-Pacific Region. Paris: UNESCO Bangkok Office.

Vila, G., Castro C. y Alvarez, D. (2018). Liderazgo transformador, engagement y creatividad en el contexto de pymes intensivas en conocimiento. Revista Galega de Economía, 27(1).

Vong,S. y Kaewurai, W. (2017). Instructional Model Development To Enhance Critical Thinking And Critical Thinking Teaching Ability Of Trainee Students At Regional Teaching Training Center In Takeo Province, Cambodia. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38, 88-95.

Walker, S. (2003). Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking. Journal of Athletic Training, 38(3), 263–267.

Wechsler, S. (2006). Validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking to the Brazilian culture. Creativity Research Journal, 18(1), 15–25.

Wessel, J. y Williams, R. (2004). Critical thinking and learning styles of students in a problem-based, master’s entry-level physical therapy program. Physioteraphy Theory and Practice, 20(2), 79-89.

Wu, H, Wu, H, Chen, I, y Chen, H. (2014). Exploring the critical influential factors of creativity for college students: A multiple criteria decision-making approach. Thinking Skills and Creativity 11, 1– 21.

Yang, C., Newby, T., y Bill, R. (2005). Using Socratic Questioning to Promote Critical Thinking Skills Through Asynchronous Discussion Forums in Distance Learning Environments. The American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 163–181.

Yang, Y. C., y Wu, W. I. (2012). Digital storytelling for enhancing student academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation: A year-long experimental study. Computers & Education, 59(2), 339–352.

Yeen-Ju, H., Mai, N., Tse, N., Wai, K., Kai, L., Chen, L. (2013). Authentic Learning Strategies to Engage Student’s Creative and Critical Thinking. Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Informatics and Creative Multimedia, p.57-62

Yih, M. y Huijser, H. (2011). The power of problem‐based learning in developing critical thinking skills: preparing students for tomorrow’s digital futures in today’s classrooms. Higher Education Research & Development, 30(3), 329-341.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Copyright (c) 2018 Iker Ros, Igor Camino Ortiz de Barrón

URL de la licencia:

Departamento de Cs. de la Educación, Facultad de Cs. Humanas, UNRC. ISSN 2314-3932. Revista Contextos de Educación - e-mail: 

Publicación evaluada por:




CONTEXTOS DE EDUCACIÓN sostiene su compromiso con las políticas de Acceso Abierto a la información científica, al considerar que tanto las publicaciones científicas como las investigaciones financiadas con fondos públicos deben circular en Internet en forma libre, gratuita y sin restricciones.